“It Just Works Better”: Introducing the 2:1 Model of Co-Teaching in Teacher Preparation

Christina M. Tschida, Judith J. Smith, Elizabeth A. Fogarty

Abstract


Many issues influence reform in teacher preparation including national accountability efforts, professional teaching standards, and local or regional factors. This study examines a rurally-located teacher education program’s efforts to reform clinical preparation through co-teaching. Researchers argue that their adaption of the typical one-to-one (1:1) model of co-teaching to a two-to-one (2:1) model, where two teacher candidates work collaboratively with one cooperating teacher, greatly enhances the student teaching experience. This phenomenological research describes the first year of implementation. Despite cooperating teacher concerns about teacher candidates being prepared for their own classrooms, student teachers learned valuable lessons in collaboration and co-planning, built strong relationships with peers and cooperating teachers, and greatly impacted K-6 student learning. Implications suggest a 2:1 co-teaching model of student teaching allows for fewer placements, which ultimately allows selection of quality cooperating teachers who mentor teacher candidates in powerful ways.

Keywords


co-teaching; student teaching; teacher preparation; rural education; clinical field experience

References


Academy for Co-Teaching and Collaboration. (2012). Mentoring teacher candidates through co-teaching [Train-the-Trainer Workshop]. St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN.

Adams, L., & Cessna, K. (1991). Designing systems to facilitate collaboration: Collective wisdom from Colorado. Preventing School Failure, 35(4), 37-42.

Adams, L., Cessna, K., & Friend, M. (1993). Effectiveness indicators of collaboration in special education/general education co-teaching: Final report. Denver, CO: Colorado Department of Education.

Anderson, D. (2009). The impact of cooperating teachers on the teaching perspectives of student teachers. The International Journal of Learning, 16(1), 119-133.

Austin, V. L. (2001). Teachers' beliefs about co-teaching. Remedial and Special Education, 22(4), 245-255. doi: 10.1177/074193250102200408

Barley, Z. A. (2009). Preparing teachers for rural appointments: Lessons from the mid-continent. The Rural Educator, 30(3), 10-15.

Bauwens, J., & Hourcade, J. J. (1991). Making co-teaching a mainstreaming strategy. Preventing School Failure, 35(4), 19-24.

Bauwens, J., & Hourcade, J. J. (1997). Cooperative teaching: Pictures of possibilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33(2), 81-85. doi: 10.1177/105345129703300202

Beninghof, A. M. (2011). Co-teaching that works: Effective strategies for working together in today's inclusive classrooms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Boucka, E. C. (2007). Co-teaching…not just a textbook term: Implications for practice. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 51(2), 46-51.

Carambo, C., & Stickney, C. T. (2009). Coteaching praxis and professional service: Facilitating the transition of beliefs and practices. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 4(2), 433-441.

Cochran-Smith, M., & Fries, M. K. (2001). Sticks, stones, and ideology: The discourse of reform in teacher education. Educational Researcher, 30(8), 3-15.

Cook, L., & Friend, M. (1995). Co-teaching: Guidelines for creating effective practices. Focus on Exceptional Children, 28(3), 1-16.

Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2012). Our responsibility, our promise: Transforming educator preparation and entry into the profession. Retrieved from: http://www.ccsso.org/Documents/2012/Our Responsibility Our Promise_2012.pdf

Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Delandshere, G., & Petrosky, A. (2004). Political rationales and ideological stances of the standards-based reform of teacher education in the US. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(1), 1-15.

Friend, M. (2001, February). Co-teaching for general and special educators. Paper presented at Clark County School District, Las Vegas, NV.

Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Gollnick, D. M., & Chinn, P. C. (2009). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Goodlad, J. (1994). The national network for educational renewal. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(8), 632-639.

Guyton, E., & McIntyre, D. (1990). Student teaching and school experiences. In W. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 514-534). New York: Macmillan.

Hang, Q., & Rabren, K. (2009). An examination of co-teaching perspectives and efficacy indicators. Remedial and Special Education, 30(5), 259-268.

Harmon, H. L., & Smith, K. C. (2012). Legacy of the rural systemic initiatives: Innovation, leadership, teacher development, and lessons learned. Charleston: WV: Edvantia, Inc. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED531890.pdf

Hudson, P. B., & Hudson, S. M. (2008). Changing preservice teachers' attitudes for teaching in rural schools. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 33(4), 67-77.

Irvine, J. J. (2003). Educating teachers for diversity: Seeing with a cultural eye. New York: Teachers College Press.

Jones, A. (2011). Rethinking the rural practicum. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. ERIC. Online Submission.

Killian, J. E., & Wilkins, E. A. (2009) Characteristics of highly effective cooperating teachers: A study of their backgrounds and preparation. Action in Teacher Education, 30(4), 67-83. doi: 10.1080/01626620.2009.10734453

Ladson-Billings, G. (2001). No teacher left behind: Issues of equity and teacher quality. In C.A. Dwyer (Ed.), Measurement and Research in the Accountability Era. (pp. 141-162). Erlbaum Mahwah, NJ: Routledge.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2004). New directions in multicultural education: Complexities, boundaries, and critical race theory. In J. Banks & C. A. McGee Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education. (pp. 50-65). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Lock, G., Reid, J. A., Green, B., Hastings, W., Cooper, M., & White, S. (2009). Researching rural-regional (teacher) education in Australia. Education in Rural Australia, 19(2), 31-44.

MetLife, Inc. (2013, April). The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Listening to Teachers in Rural Schools. Paper presented at the National Conference on Rural Education Research, Omaha, NE.

Murphy, P., & Cross, W. (1990). Preparing teachers for rural schools: A Canadian approach. The Rural Educator, 11(3), 10-11.

The National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Rural education in America. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/ruraled/

National Council on Teacher Quality. (2011). State of the states: Trends and early lessons on teacher evaluation and effectiveness policies. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/p/publications/docs/nctq_stateOfTheStates.pdf

Nganga, L., & Laughlin, P. (2011). Preparing culturally responsive rural early childhood educators: Infusing diversity into multiple course work. In D.T. Williams & T.L. Mann (Eds.) Early childhood education in rural communities: Access and quality issues (pp.119-145). Fairfax, VA: UNCF/Frederick D. Patterson Research Institute.

Ralph, E. G. (2002). Teaching in rural schools: A synthesis of interns and cooperating teachers’ views. The Rural Educator, 24(2), 13-22.

Reeve, P. T., & Hallahan, D. P. (1994). Practical questions about collaboration between general and special educators. Focus on Exceptional Children, 26(7), 1-10.

Ruys, I., Van Keer, H., & Aelterman, A. (2010). Collaborative learning in pre-service teacher education: An exploratory study on related conceptions, self-efficacy and implementation. Educational Studies, 36(5), 537-553.

Sharplin, E. (2002). Rural retreat or outback hell: Expectations of rural and remote teaching. Issues in Educational Research, 12(1), 49-63.

Sileo, J. M. (2005, August). Co-teaching: Best practices for education. In Inclusive and Supportive Education Congress International Special Education Conference Inclusion: Celebrating Diversity? Retrieved from http://www.isec2005.org.uk/isec/abstracts/papers_s/sileo_j.shtml

Sinclair, C., Dawson, M., & Thistleton-Martin, J. (2006). Motivations and profiles of cooperating teachers: Who volunteers and why? Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 263-279.

Stake, R. (2000). Qualitative case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 443-466). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Vaughn, S., Schumm, J. S., & Arguelle, M. (1997). The ABCDEs of co-teaching. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30, 4-10.

Wang, J., Odell, S. J., Klecka, C. L., Spalding, E., & Lin, E. (2010). Understanding teacher education reform. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(5), 395-402.

White, S., & Kline, J. (2012). Developing a rural teacher education curriculum package. The Rural Educator, 33(2), 36-43.

Whitney, L., Golez, F., Nagel, G., & Nieto, C. (2002). Listening to voices of practicing teachers to examine the effectiveness of a teacher education program. Action in Teacher Education, 23(4), 69-76.

Yarrow, A., Ballantyne, R., Hansford, B., Herschell, P., & Millwater, J. (1999). Teaching in rural and remote schools: A literature review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 15(1), 1-13.

Zeichner, K. (2002). Beyond traditional structures of student teaching. Teacher Education Quarterly, 29(2), 59-64.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Publication of the National Rural Education Association - http://www.nrea.net

Report problems or questions about to the website to jshedd@library.msstate.edu