Expressed Values of 4-H Adult Volunteer Leaders: Implications for Rural Teachers and 4-H Staff

Janet Usinger, Don Breazeale, Marilyn Smith


Historically, the collaborative efforts between rural teachers and 4-H have provided enhanced opportunities for youth that would not have been otherwise possible. As resources continue to diminish in rural communities, this collaboration is valuable to both schools and the 4-H organization. Currently rural schools are concentrating on the increased demand for academic accountability through performance testing and other evaluation instruments. This trend has resulted in less time for the elective outlets that have traditionally been an important part of school. At a time when 4-H could help fill an important gap in rural communities, changes within the organization have left some volunteers feeling overwhelmed. This article offers a theoretical framework for understanding the feelings and values of rural 4-H volunteers during a period of dramatic organizational change.


Charmaz, K. (2000). Grounded theory: Objectivist and constructivist methods. In N.K. Densin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., p. 509-535). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Glaser, B.G. & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory. Chicago: Aldine.

Hall, B.P. (1994). Values Shift: A Guide to Personal and Organizational Transformation. Rockport, MA: Twin Lights Publishers, Inc.

Hall, B.P. (2000). The Genesis Effect: Personal and Organizational Transformations. Makati City: Don Bosco Press.

Hill, C.E., Thompson, B.J. and Williams, E.N. (1997). A guide to conducting consensual qualitative research. Counseling Psychologist, 25(4), 517-572.

Rasmussen, W.D. (1989). Taking the university to the people: 75 years of Cooperative Extension. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

Singletary, L., M. Smith, W. Evans. (2001) Can 4-H help parents and schools fill a gap? Rural Educator, 23(2), 13-21.

U.S. Census Bureau (2002). Population and housing unit count. Retrieved August 1, 2003, from

U.S. National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983). A nation at risk: the imperative for educational reform. Retrieved April 29, 2005, from

Wheatley, M.J. (1992). Leadership and the New Science: Learning About Organization from an Orderly Universe. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Publication of the National Rural Education Association -

Report problems or questions about to the website to