Helping Children with Emotional Difficulties: A Response to Intervention Investigation

Lee R. Pearce

Abstract


This article describes a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of service delivery implemented within a rural elementary school for students in kindergarten through fifth grade experiencing significant emotional and behavioral difficulties. A multi-tiered model is presented that includes school wide interventions in Tier 1, as well as a six separate interventions applied within Tier 2 and Tier 3. These included applied behavioral analysis, social skills training, counseling,  differentiated instruction, cognitive behavioral interventions and parent involvement designed to assist identified students with improving prosocial skills. Nine children were treated within this program model over a two year period, resulting in two students being placed in special education under the category of emotional disturbance by the project’s termination. Positive and negative aspects of the project’s implementation are reviewed, along with directions for future research.

References


Alberto, P.A., & Troutman, A.C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Barnett, D.W., Daly, E.J., Jones, K.M., & Lentz, F.E. (2004). Response to intervention: Empirically based special services decisions from single-case designs of increasing and decreasing intensity. The Journal of Special Education, 38 (2), 66-79.

Batsche, G., Elliot, J., Graden, J., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). Response to intervention. Alexandria, VA. National Association of State Directors of Special Education.

Bloomquist, M. L. (1996). Skills training for children with behavioral disorders. New York. The Guilford Press.

Braswell, L. & Bloomquist, M.L. (1991). Cognitivebehavioral therapy with adhd Children. New York. The Guilford Press.

Burnhill, G.P. (2005). Functional behavioral assessments in schools. Interventions in School and Clinic, 40 (3), 131-144.

Canter, L. & Canter, M. (1992). Assertive discipline: Positive behavior management for today’s classroom. Santa Monica, CA: Canter and Associates.

Character Counts. (2001). Los Angeles, CA. www.charactercounts.org

Compton, D.L., Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., & Bryant, J.D. (2006). Selecting at-risk readers in first grade for early intervention: a two year longitudinal study of decision rules and procedures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98 (2), 394-409.

Dobson, K. S. (2001). Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. New York. The Guilford Press.

Ervin, R.A., Ehrhardt, K.E. & Poling, A. (2001). Functional assessment: Old wine in new bottles. School Psychology Review, 30 (2) 173-179.

Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, D., & Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention: examining classroom behavior support in second grade. Council for Exceptional Children, 73 (3), 288-310.

Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D.J., Morris, R.D., & Lyon, G.R. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of learning disabilities in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34 (3), 506-522.

Fletcher, J.M., Coulter, W.A., Reschly, D.J., & Vaughn, S. (2004). Alternative approaches to the definition and identification of learning disabilities: some questions and answers. Annals of Dyslexia, 534 (2), 304-331.

Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L.S. (2005). Responsiveness to intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policy makers, and parents. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(1), 57-61.

Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L.S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41 (1), 93-99.

Gargiulo, R.M. (2007). Special education in contemporary society: An introduction to exceptionality (2nd edition with IDEA update). Mason, Ohio. Thompson Wadsworth Publishing.

Gresham, F. M. (2005). Response to intervention: An alternative means of identifying students as emotionally disturbed. Education and Treatment of Children, 28 (4), 328-345.

Gresham, F. M., Van, M. B., & Cook, C. R. (2006). Social skills training for teaching replacement behaviors: Remediating acquisition deficits in at-risk students. Behavior Disorders, 31 (4), 363-377.

Gresham, F. M., Watson, T. S., & Skinner, C.H. (2001). Functional behavioral assessment: Principles, procedures and future directions. School Psychology Review, 30 (2), 156-172.

Harris-Murri, N., King, K., & Rostenberg, D. (2006). Reducing disproportionate minority representation in special education programs for students with emotional disturbances: Toward a culturally responsive response to intervention model. Education and Treatment of Children, 29 (4), 779-800.

Hughes, A.F. & Adera, B. (2006). Education and day treatment opportunities in schools: Strategies that work. Preventing School Failure, 51 (1), 26-31.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA 04), H.R. 1350, 108th Congress. (2004).

Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHeyden, A., (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of response to Intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. New York. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Kern, L., Hilt, A.M., & Gresham, F. (2004). An evaluation of the functional behavior assessment process used with students with or at risk for emotional and behavior disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 27(4), 440-453.

Killu, K., Weber, K.P., Derby, K.M., & Baretto, A. (2006). Behavior intervention planning and supplementation of positive behavioral support plans: An examination of state’s adherence to standards of practice. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8 (4), 195-200.

Kossar, K., Mitchem, K., & Ludlow, B. L. (2005). No child left behind: A national study of its impact on special education in rural schools. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 24 (1), 3-9.

Lane, K.L., Wehby, J.H., Robertson, E.J., & Rogers, L.A. (2007). How do different types of high school students respond to school-wide positive behavioral support programs? Characteristics and responsiveness of teacher-identified students. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 15 (1), 3-21.

Marston, D. (2005). Tiers of intervention in responsiveness to intervention: prevention outcomes and learning disabilities identification patterns. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38 (6), 539-545.

Marzano, R.J. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, Virginia.

McGinnis, E. & Goldstein, A. P. (1997). Skillstreaming the elementary school child: New strategies and perspectives for teaching prosocial skills. Champaign Illinois: Research Press.

Miller, M. D., Brownell, M. T., & Smith, S. W. (1999). Factors that predict teachers staying in, leaving, or transferring from the special education classroom. Exceptional Children, 65, 201-218.

Montiero-Leitner, J., Asner-Self, K.K., Milde, C., Leitner, D.W., & Skelton, D. (2006). The role of the rural school counselor: Counselor, counselor in training and principal perceptions. Professional School Counseling, 9 (3), 248-252.

Murray, F.R. (2005). Effective advocacy for students with emotional/behavioral disorders: How high the cost? Education and Treatment of Children, 28 (4), 414-430.

Nagle, K.M., Hernandez, G., Embler, S., Mclaughlin, M.J., & Doh, F. (2006). Characteristics of effective rural elementary schools for students with disabilities. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 25 (3) 10-13.

Office of Rural Health Policy Resources and Services Administration within the Department of Health and Human Resources. (1998). http://www.frontierus.org/documents/consensus.htm

Reschly, D. J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2002). Paradigm shift: The past is not the future. In A. Thomas and J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology IV, 3-20. Bethesda MD: National Association of School Psychologist.

Reschly, D.J. (2006). Response to intervention in general, remedial, and special education. Presented at South Dakota Association of School Psychologists Annual Conference, Spearfish, SD.

Roberts, M.L., Marshall, J., Nelson, J.R. & Albers, C.A. (2001). Curriculum based assessment procedures embedded within functional behavioral assessments: Identifying escape motivated behaviors in a general education classroom. School Psychology Review, 30 (2), 264-277.

Scheffel, D.L., Rude, H.A., & Bole, P.T. (2005). Avoiding special education litigation in rural school districts. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 24 (4), 3-9.

Simpson, R. L. (2004). Inclusion of students with behavior disorders in general education settings: Research and measurement issues. Behavior Disorders, 30 (1), 19-32.

Sterling-Turner, H.E., Robinson, S.L., & Wilczynski, S.M. (2001). Functional assessment of disturbing and disruptive behaviors in the school setting. School Psychology Review, 30 (2), 211-226.

Strichter, J.P., Hudson, S., & Sasso, G.M. (2005). The use of structural analysis to identify setting events in applied settings for students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Behavior Disorders, 30 (4), 403-420.

Thornton, B., Hill, G., & Usinger, J. (2006). An examination of a fissure within the implementation of the NCLB accountability process. Education, 127 (1), 115-121.

Tomlinson, C.A. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Tomlinson, C.A. & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating differentiated instruction and understanding by design. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Treptow, M.A., Burns, M.K., & McComas, J.J. (2007). Reading at the frustration, instructional, and independent levels: The effects of student’s reading comprehension and time on task. School Psychology Review, 36 (1), 159-166.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2006. http://www.census.gov


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Publication of the National Rural Education Association - http://www.nrea.net

Report problems or questions about to the website to jshedd@library.msstate.edu